Benjamin Holland (1794–1877), Hairdresser and Perfumer, Lichfield

Benjamin Holland submitted quarterly bills amounting to 12s each to the overseers of St Mary’s, Lichfield, for dressing hair and shaving the poor.[1] The earliest surviving bill is dated 1822; the last dates from 1837. The wording of the bills does not make it clear as to whether Holland went to the workhouse in Sandford Street or whether the inmates went to his premises in Tamworth Street. Given the limited opportunities during the day for inmates to leave workhouses, it was probably the former. The bills were drawn up by Benjamin. The money was either collected by Benjamin or by his first wife Sarah. After Sarah’s death, the bills were signed by Benjamin only.


Figure 1: LD20/6/6/ no item number, Lichfield, St Mary’s, Benjamin Holland, Michaelmas the 29, 1827

When Holland started his business is unknown, but he is listed in Parson and Bradshaw’s directory of 1818 and in Pigot’s directory of 1828–29.[2]

Holland was the son of George and Mary Holland, and was baptised at St Chad’s, Lichfield, on 24 January 1796.[3] By his first wife Sarah, he had three children: Thomas, baptised 22 February 1824; Mary, baptised 25 May 1828; and William, baptised 27 June 1830.[4]


Figure 2: LD20/6/6/ no item number, Lichfield, St Mary’s, Benjamin Holland, 1828.

Sarah (b.1792) died in 1832 aged 40 and was buried on 12 January at St Michael’s.[5] This was common for the city. St Mary’s had no burial ground whilst St Michael’s extended to seven acres.

Benjamin Holland married subsequently spinster Mary Collins at St Chad’s on 20 March 1834. The register was signed by Holland: Mary with her mark.[6]

At the time of the 1841 Census the Holland household consisted of Benjamin, his second wife Mary, his three children by his first wife, and a female servant Catherine Sawyer, aged 20.[7] A Catherine Sawyer, daughter of paper maker William Sawyer and his wife Sarah of Stowe Street, was baptised 9 December 1821 at St Chad’s.[8]


Figure 3: LD20/6/6/ no item number, Lichfield, St Mary’s, Benjamin Holland, 1829.

Ten years later, the household consisted of Benjamin and Mary, son William, aged 19, a cordwainer; and William Sawyer, aged seven, described as a nephew.[9] Searching parish registers shows that a William Sawyer was baptised on 19 October 1843 at St Michael’s. His mother was Catherine Sawyer, spinster, was a workhouse inmate.[10] Were these William and Catherine Sawyer the same people who later became part of the Holland household? Their ages fit.

The Lichfield Poor Law Union Minute Book for 10 November 1843 contains the following entry: ‘Ordered that proceedings be taken against the Putative Father of Catherine Sawyer’s Bastard Child chargeable to [the parish of ] St Chad.’[11]

By 1861 the Holland household had contracted. Aside from Benjamin and Mary, the only other person resident at the time of the Census was nephew William, now a clockmaker.[12]

By 1871 the household consisted of just Benjamin and Mary.[13] Throughout this time the Hollands were resident in Tamworth Street.

Benjamin died in 1877 aged 83. He was buried at St Michael’s on 25 March.[14]


[1] SRO, LD20/6/6/, no item nos., Lichfield, St Mary’s Overseers’ Vouchers, Benjamin Holland, 1827, 1828, 1829.

[2] Parson, W. and Bradshaw, T., Staffordshire General and Commercial Directory presenting an Alphabetical Arrangement of the Names and Residences of the Nobility, Gentry, Merchants and Inhabitants in General (Manchester: J. Leigh, 1818), 174;  Pigot and Co., 1828, National Commercial Directory for 1828-9, Cheshire, Cumberland &c  (London and Manchester: J. Pigot and Co.), 716.

[3] SRO, D29/1/8, St Chad’s Parish Register.

[4] SRO, D20/1/4, St Mary’s Parish Register, Baptisms.

[5] SRO, D27/1/8, St Michael’s Parish Register.

[6] SRO, D29/1/8, St Chad’s Parish Register.

[7] TNA, HO107/1008/2 1841 Census.

[8] SRO, D29/1/3 St Chad’s Parish Register.

[9] TNA, HO107/2014 1851 Census.

[10] SRO, D27/1/7, St Michael’s Parish Register, Baptisms.

[11] SRO, LD458/1/2, Lichfield Union Minute Book, 4 February 1842 – 12 November 1847.

[12] TNA, RG9/1972 1861 Census.

[13] TNA, RG10/2913, 1871 Census.

[14] SRO, D27/1/12, St Michael’s Parish Register.

William Snape, Mercer and Draper, Lichfield, part II

William Snape died in 1833 (see entry for William Snape, 9 July 2019). He left no will. His widow, Ann, applied for letters of administration to the Bishop’s Court in Lichfield by which she would gain the authority to administer her husband’s estate.[1] The papers state that William died on 22 March 1833. His personal estate amounted to no more than £600. As was customary for the time, those wishing to administer the estate of a deceased entered into a guarantee or bond to carry out all necessary duties in relation to it. In this instance, those entering the bond, calculated at twice the value of the estate, were Ann Snape and John Dadley, gentleman, of Edgbaston, Warwickshire.

One of the responsibilities in dealing with a deceased’s estate was to ‘make, or cause to be made a true and perfect inventory of all and singular the goods, chattels and credits of the said deceased’.[2]  To do this involved calling in all debts, and settling accounts with creditors. Although it came after probate was granted, Ann Snape placed the following notice in Aris’s Birmingham Gazette:

‘Persons having any claim or demand upon the estate of Mr. WILLIAM SNAPE, of Lichfield, Draper, deceased, are requested to send the particulars thereof and the nature of their securities, if any there be, to -Mrs. Ann Snape, his Widow.’[3]


[1] SRO, P/C/11, Admon William Snape, 30 August 1833.

[2] SRO, P/C/11, Admon William Snape, 30 August 1833.

[3] Aris’s Birmingham Gazette, 14 October 1833, p. 3.

Elizabeth Dawes, Grocer, Lichfield, part II

Elizabeth Dawes’ husband, Benjamin, died in 1817. In his short will dated 14 July 1813, witnessed by William Willdey and Thomas Roberts, he left his wife all his goods and property.[1] His wearing apparel was to be distributed by Elizabeth at her discretion to Benjamin’s brothers, William, Edward, Joseph, and James Dawes, and to his sisters Sarah Bradney and Anna Bradeny. The sisters lived in Bridgnorth, Shropshire. If Elizabeth remarried the property ‘she was then worth shall be held in trust for Ann Willdey my niece but not to be paid to the said Ann Willdey till my wife Elizabeth Dawes’ decease’.

Elizabeth was appointed as the sole executrix giving an indication of Benjamin’s confidence in his wife to settle his estate and to manage her own finances. As suspected (see the entry for Elizabeth Dawes, 9 July 2019) Benjamin and Elizabeth had no surviving children to whom the grocery business could be left.

William Willdey, who witnessed Benjamin Dawes’ will, was most likely the father of the Ann Willdey included in the 1841 Census who was living with Elizabeth Dawes.[2] William Willdey married Ann Barisford on 23 June 1799.[3]


[1] SRO, P/C/11, Will of Benjamin Dawes, 1 September 1817.

[2] TNA, HO107/1008/3, 1841 Census, Elizabeth Dawes, Lichfield.

[3] SRO,  D20/1/4, St Mary’s, Lichfield, Parish Register.

William Snape (c.1774-1833), Mercer and Draper, Lichfield, Staffordshire

William Snape was a mercer and draper in Market St, Lichfield, who was used by the overseers to supply fabrics, cloths and threads to the workhouse. He supplied fabrics such as blue linen, drab calico, Irish linen, blue print, buttons and thread.[1] This suggest that the workhouse may have been making some form of uniform or sets of apprentices’ clothes (see ‘Blue Duffle’ entry 28 March 2019). We have vouchers for him supplying the workhouse between 1824-1830. The bill from 1824 has a pre-printed ink header across the top. It shows a tombstone with a shrouded urn on top with two figures either side one of which represents Liberty with her scales and sword. This suggests that his business was doing well as he could afford to add the headers.[2] The bills are still hand signed though by him, proving that he was literate. The header also states that William furnished funerals meaning that he supplied all the drapes, clothes and fabrics used in the funeral and he would rent them out. This at the time had become a lucrative business.

William Snape, son of Isaac Snape, was baptised on 24 July 1774. William Snape’s registered age in the calendar of wills was 59. This would mean his year of birth would be 1774. William Snape the elder married Anne Jackson in 1801 in St Mary’s, Lichfield.[3] We believe that they had a son, also called William, as there is a baptism that took place in May 1806 with reference to them.[4] At the moment we have no evidence suggesting that the son carried on the business or went into the same profession as he is not listed in any trade directories and we have no vouchers after the date William dies. There is however, a Mrs Anne Snape listed in White’s 1834 directory. She is not listed under any business, and had moved from Market St to Beacon St. This suggests that she was living off independent means.[5] There is a possibility that it could be the widow of William Snape as she is listed as Mrs Anne Snape. William did not leave a will when he died, however, letters of administration were drawn up after his death.[6]

The vouchers suggest that the business of William Snape was lucrative and successful as the total amount paid for the four bills we have is £22 9s 6 ½ d. It is then surprising to find that on 17 April 1821 there was a bankruptcy case in the London Gazette for William Snape, ‘of the City of Lichfield, Mercer, Draper, Dealer and Chapman’.[7] There were then three meetings arranged on the 14, 15 and 29 of May at the Talbot Arms, Rugeley, Stafford. The first meeting was for Snape to make a full ‘disclosure of his estate and effects’ and also for any creditors to prove their claims. The second sitting was to choose assignees, who were responsible to gather in all the debts owed to William Snape and the administration of his bankruptcy. The final sitting on the 29 was to finish the examination and for William Snape to declare everything he had, to state all his debtors and creditors. The solicitors for the case were Mr Thomas Gnosall Parr, of Bird Street, Lichfield and Messrs. Constable and Kirk, solicitors, Symond’s-inn, Chancery Lane, London.[8] The date for the final dividend to be paid was 16 December 1822 at the Talbot Arms, Rugeley, where all creditors should prove their debts and that any claims after that date would be disallowed.[9] This suggests that it brought an end to everything that the commissioners were going to do, therefore freeing Snape from the bankruptcy. We know that he recovered as the vouchers state that he was supplying the workhouse just two years after being cleared of his bankruptcy.

William Snape died and was buried in March 1833 at St Michael’s, Lichfield.[10]


[1] Staffordshire Record Office (hereafter SRO) LD20/6/6 no item no., Lichfield, St Mary’s overseer’s voucher, 1824; SRO LD20/6/6 no item no., Lichfield, St Mary’s overseer’s voucher, 1830.

[2] SRO LD20/6/6 no item no., Lichfield, St Mary’s overseer’s voucher, 1824.

[3] SRO D20/1/9, Lichfield, St Mary’s Parish registers, 1801.

[4] SRO D20/1/3, Lichfield, St Mary’s Parish Records, Baptisms, 1806.

[5] William White, History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire (Sheffield: 1834).

[6] SRO P/C/11, Lichfield, Calendar of Peculiars, 30 August 1833.

[7] London Gazette, 17 April 1821, 877.

[8] London Gazette, 16 October 1821, 2059; London Gazette, 17 April 1821, 877.

[9] London Gazette, 23 November 1822, 1929.

[10] SRO D27/1/9, Lichfield, St Michael’s, Burials, 29 March 1833, 191.

Elizabeth Dawes (1769-1852), Grocer, Lichfield, Staffordshire

Elizabeth Dawes was a grocer in St John’s Street, Lichfield, who was used by the overseers of the workhouse to supply groceries and sundries such as rice, oatmeal, potash and salt from June to September 1823.[1] The workhouse made 22 purchases from her business between these months suggesting that her business was in frequent contact with the workhouse. In a second bill from February to March 1823, she was selling the same items: rice, black pepper and treacle. Although it is a shorter bill it proves that she was in business with the workhouse for at least nine months.[2] The first bill was not written by her but by another party. The second, however, was written and signed by her as demonstrated by a comparison between the handwriting on the bills and her marriage certificate.[3] This means that she was not illiterate but that she possibly employed someone showing that the business must be stable and possibly profitable.

Elizabeth Dawes was registered under ‘Shopkeepers and Dealers in Groceries and Sundries’ in Pigot and Co.’s 1828 directory and White’s directory of 1834.[4] In Pigot’s directory she is registered along with 16 other ‘Shopkeepers and Dealers in Groceries and Sundries’, three of whom were women and nine were men. Twelve grocers were also listed separately, none of whom were female. As she was listed in Parson’s and Bradshaw’s 1818 directory as a ‘Grocer and Tea Dealer’, this means she was running the business for at least 16 years.[5]

Elizabeth Barisford was born in 1768.[6] She married Benjamin Dawes on 24 September 1797 in Lichfield at St Mary’s.[7] Benjamin died and was buried in St Michael’s, Lichfield, in 1817.[8] We do not think that they had any children as there are no baptisms recorded for the Parish of St Mary’s with a reference to them.[9] However, in the 1841 Census there is a Jane Wildley, 20, listed as living with her but the connection between Elizabeth and Jane is not stated.[10] Elizabeth is also listed as having a female servant, called Mary Hall, aged 13, living with her. This is an indication of her middle class status as she could afford to employ a servant. A servant would free up Elizabeth’s time allowing her to focus on and run her business instead.

By the 1851 Census Elizabeth was 83 and registered as an inmate annuitant which means that she was living off the profits of her investments or savings suggesting that her business had been successful enough to support her retirement. She had also moved address and was now living on Tamworth Street. She was now a member of someone else’s household possibly family but we do not know.[11] Whilst she was no longer working, the fact that she was also no longer living in her own house suggests that she might be living in reduced circumstances.

Elizabeth died on 10 July 1852 at the age of 84. She was buried in St Michael’s. Lichfield alongside her husband Benjamin.[12]


[1] Staffordshire Records Office (hereafter SRO), LD20/6/6 No item no., Lichfield St Mary’s overseer’s voucher, 1823.

[2]SRO LD20/6/6 No item no., Lichfield, St Mary’s overseer’s voucher, 1823,

[3] SRO, D20/1/9, Lichfield, St Mary’s Parish Register, 24 September 1797.

[4] John Pigot and Co., Pigot and Co.’s National Directory, 1828-1829, part 2 (Manchester and London, 1828), 717; William White, History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire (Sheffield: 1834), 161.

[5] W. Parson and T. Bradshaw, Staffordshire General and Commercial Directory (1818), 186.

[6] St Michael’s Church Yard, Lichfield, Gravestone; D20/1/9, Lichfield, St Mary’s Parish Register, 24 September 1797.

[7] SRO, D20/1/9, Lichfield, St Mary’s Parish Register, 24 September 1797.

[8] SRO, D/27/1/9, Lichfield, St Michael’s Parish Register, 1 April 1817.

[9] SRO, D20/1/9, Lichfield, St Mary’s Parish Register, Baptisms.

[10] TNA, HO107/1008/3, 1841 Census, Elizabeth Dawes, Lichfield.

[11] TNA, HO107/2014, 1851 Census, Elizabeth Dawes, Lichfield.

[12] Lichfield, St Michael’s Church Yard, Gravestone.

Stephen Foster

Stafford Record Office Ref D1149/6/2/8/52 Darlaston, Staffordshire Paupers’ Vouchers.

A Settled bill from Richard Meek to Richard Taylor for £1 3s 5d dated April to Oct 1823 for Shoe repairs and new shoes. The names included Stephen Foster for “shoes with high heels for a lame foot.” As a retired Podiatrist I realised that Stephen probably had a form of club foot called Talipes Equinus in which the heel cannot reach the ground; similar to a horse’s foot hence the name.

Looking for Stephen I discovered several Stephen Fosters in Darlaston and reconstructed the family using a very informative Will and the St. Lawrence Parish Records.

 

Transcription of part of the Will of Stephen Foster dated 1813

Stephen Foster of Darlaston, Gunlockforger I give and devise:-

  1. unto my wife Hannah Foster for her natural life all and every my messuages tenements or dwellinghouses shops gardens hereditaments and real estate. After her decease I give and devise unto my son in Law William Bailey all that messuage tenement or dwelling house situate in Darlaston aforesaid and the shop near the same now in the occupation of the said William Bailey And also a necessary house near the said premises which is used by the occupiers of all my buildings in Darlaston. And also a pigstie near the said necessary house.
  2. After the decease of my wife I give and devise to my son Stephen Foster All that messuage tenement or dwelling house in Darlaston with the shop near the same now in the occupation of my said son Stephen and also full and free liberty power and authority to throw the shop slack through the window of the said shop and to fetch and carry away the same as often as shall be necessary but so nevertheless that the said shop slack be not suffered to obstruct the road to the shop hereinbefore given and devised to the said William Bailey more than is absolutely necessary And also the coal house and pigstie adjoining the said house which is now in the occupation of my said son.
  3. After the decease of my wife I give unto my son Josiah All that messuage tenement or dwelling house with the shop in the garden near to property [of] my son Job Foster And all that garden ground or void land the whole width and extending from the eastern part of the last mentioned shop to the back road to the Church and are now in my own occupation except the said shop which is occupied by my said son Josiah
  4. I give and devise to my sons Stephen and Josiah All that newly erected shop situate in Darlaston near the said other shops and now in my own occupation To hold the same unto and to the use of my said sons Stephen and Josiah as Tenants in common and not as joint Tenants. Provided always that the owners and tenants or occupiers of all the said messuages tenements or dwellinghouses shops and premises shall have an equal right to the pump standing near and belonging thereto and to have and take water therefrom and that the said pump and the well shall from time to time be repaired amended and kept in repair at the joint and equal costs and charges of the owners of the said messuages tenements or dwellinghouses and premises. And that the owners and tenants or occupiers of the said premises aforesaid shall have an equal right to the entry or passage and to pass and repass thereby to and from the street in front of the said premises to and from the back part of the respective premises.
  5. I give and devise to the said William Bailey and my said sons Stephen and Josiah All the void land at the back of the said dwelling houses except the garden ground or void land herebefore devised to my son Josiah. To hold the same unto the use of the said William Bailey and my said sons Stephen and Josiah as Tenants in common and not as joint tenants
  6. I give and bequeath to my said son Josiah my suit of black cloaths [sic] and to the said William Bailey and my said sons Stephen and Josiah all other my wearing apparel equally.
  7. I give and bequeath to my Grandson Richard Foster son of my late son George Foster one complete set of gunlock forgers tools to be chosen from my tools by him.
  8. I also give and bequeath to my said son Stephen all the rest of my tools belonging to my trade of a Gunlock Forger.
  9. I give and bequeath to my son Josiah the sum of fifty pounds.
  10. I give and bequeath to my executors hereinafter named all my household goods and furniture money securities for money book debts personal estate and effects, for my wife to have the use of all my household goods furniture bedding linen and other household effects for and during the term of her natural life
  11. Upon further trust to put and place the remainder of my said money personal estate and effects out at Interest upon government or real security and to pay all the Interest and product thereof unto my said wife for and during the term of her natural life
  12. And from and immediately after the decease of my said wife I give and bequeath to my son Job the sum of one Hundred pounds, to my son Stephen the sum of fifty pounds to the said William Bailey the sum of fifty pounds to my grandson Richard Foster the sum of Twenty pounds , to my grandson John Foster the sum of twenty pounds, to my grandson Stephen Foster the sum of twenty pounds, to my grandson Stephen Carter the sum of Twenty Pounds, and to my grandson George Carter the sum of Twenty Pounds.
  13. And from and immediately after the decease of my said wife I give and  bequeath all the rest and residue and remainder of my said household goods and furniture, money, securities for money, book debts, personal estate, and effects whatsoever and wheresoever and not herebefore given and disposed of to my daughter Elizabeth the wife of the said William Bailey and to my said sons Stephen and Josiah equally.
  14. And Lastly I do hereby nominate constitute and appoint my friend Francis Taylor of Darlaston, Miner my said sons Stephen and Josiah and my son in Law William Bailey joint executors of this my Will. In Witness whereof I the said Testator have to this my last Will and Testament contained and written on three sheets of paper, to the first two sheets set my hand and to this third and last sheet my hand and seal the this third day of January One Thousand and thirteen.

Signed Stephen Foster  Witnesses Thos. Brevitt, Butcher, Darlaston and A. Rooker, Surgeon, Darlaston

.

Codicil dated 12 Mar 1813 removes Francis Taylor as an executor. A more shakey signature from Stephen. Wit: Moses Foster (Darlaston), William Foster (Darlaston) and Jno. Sketchley Clk to Messrs Crowther, Wednesbury.

The Chart above shows the family but curiously no Baptism has been found for either Job or George Foster. Job appears to have been born circa 1765 calculated from his age at burial but George who was dead before 1813 has no age given so I have guessed it based on the age of his first child.

There were 4 Stephen Fosters alive in 1823 – Stephen born 1777 s/o Stephen; Stephen born 1799 s/o Job; Stephen born 1800 s/o George and Stephen born 1817 s/o Josiah.

Stephen born 1777 and his brother Josiah inherited property from their Father so I have discounted these and their children as being less likely to need the help of the Overseers of the Poor.

That leaves the two Stephens born 1799 and 1800 as likely candidates. These were the sons of Job and George both of whom Stephen the Gun lock Forger claims in 1813 to be his sons but he leaves them considerably less than his other sons (Stephen and Josiah). It could be that he had previously provided for them, but this part of the family may be considerably less well off financially. It could be that Job and George were either adopted or illegitimate sons.

There is also a curious familiarity of the Names.

Frances Taylor is named as an executor. Could he be related to the one who went to Tettenhall to become Governor of the Workhouse? William Bailey – a William Bayley has supplied goods and services to the Darlaston Workhouse. A Rooker is also the surgeon to the Darlaston Workhouse.

Both Stephen who died 1813 and his wife Hannah are buried with an abode of Church St. Using this and the description of the various properties in the Will I am wondering if they can be identified. The Will states that he gives to Josiah ‘And all that garden ground or void land the whole width and extending from the eastern part of the last mentioned shop to the back road to the Church’.  Also’And that the owners and tenants or occupiers of the said premises aforesaid shall have an equal right to the entry or passage’

Using Google Earth and Maps it appears that this property might be between Church Street and Cramp Hill as there is an entry to the Church from Cramp Hill.

 

(Google Maps)

There is a Passageway between what is now Hair by Wendy and Kirans Balti making me wonder if the car park etc behind might be the land in question. Or they could be a little further along to the right of the photograph.

Elizabeth Wild and Solomon Smith, of Betley, Staffordshire

The following voucher comes from the parish of Betley, Staffordshire and is an agreement by Solomon Smith, the son-in-law of Elizabeth Wild, to indemnify the Churchwardens and Overseers regarding her maintenance. In return for agreeing to pay the Churchwardens and Overseers a fixed sum of money, Smith was to receive what amounted to an annuity.  Perhaps Smith was banking on his mother-in-law living for longer than the value of his £20 indemnity. We have come across no other vouchers similar to this.

Transcription:-

8 March 1797

I promise to pay to the Churchwardens and Overseers of Betley in the County of Stafford the sum of Twenty pounds in Case any Charges and Expenses heretofor (sic) be upon them on account of my mother in law Elizabeth Wild whether as to her maintenance funeral or otherwise They undertaking to pay me two shillings a week during her natural life As witness my hand

The mark X of Solomon Smith

 

Soloman Smith married Mary Wild on 3 Nov 1782 at Church Lawton (Cheshire BTs) only about 7 miles away from Betley.

Soloman Smith was possibly the illegitimate child baptised at St. Peter Ad Vincula, Stoke on Trent. 9 Oct 1725 Soloman son of Catherine Smith.

Mary Wild was baptised at St. Margaret’s, Betley, Staffordshire on 11 Jun 1763 and was the daughter of Ralph and Betty Wild (spelt Wyld)

Ralph Wylde married Elizabeth Cotton on 16 May 1749 at St. Margaret’s, Betley, Staffordshire and so far only 2 children’s baptisms have been found in St. Margaret’s Parish Records, Betley, Staffordshire

  1. Peter Wyld bapt 17 April 1759 at St. Margaret’s Betley Buried 12 Sept 1819
  2. Mary Wyld bapt 11 Jun 1763 at St. Margaret’s Betley

Ralph Wild was buried 2 Aug 1785 at St. Margaret’s, Betley

So far the burial for Elizabeth or Betty Wild is not identified and so do not know if Soloman Smith made a good investment.  2s per week = 104s pa. £20 divided by 104s = 3.8yrs.

INSKIPS OF DILHORNE.

Document Ref D5/A/PO/7 seen in Stafford Record Office is a book (think of a largish School exercise book) recording weekly and extra payments over the years 1813 and 1814 for the Parish of Dilhorne, Staffordshire. Unfortunately the first page is missing. What stood out immediately was the number of payments to members of the Inskip family totaling 32 over the 2 years span.

Of the 32 entries 25 of them appear to be relating to Richard Inskip, his wife or family.

Studying them further the conclusion is that they relate to more than one Richard Inskip as one records paying Richard Inskip for his horse and cart taking Sherratt’s family back. Two entries mention that they paid 4 shillings and 3 shillings to the wife of Richard Inskip Stone Mason. Probably as a Stone Mason he had a horse and cart and Richard Inskip 1763 – 1840 Wheelwright in his Will left a Blacksmith’s shop, house and a piece of land.

This leaves other payments to Richard Inskip’s wife and family totalling £20 4s 0d.  This was a large amount of money https://www.measuringworth.com calculates it could be as high as £84,000 in 2018 value.

It was rather complicated trying to find out who Richard Inskip was as Richard was a popular name in the Inskip Family. In the end it required traveling back 5 generations to Richard Inskip a Blacksmith living in Blythe Bridge, parish of Dilhorne (which is next to Forsbrook) and his descendants.  Most of these were straight forward as they had a Blacksmith’s shop in Forsbrook, parish of Dilhorne and also a Wheelwright’s. These descendants account for the odd payments to Richard (stone mason) Thomas and Ralph.

The payment on 16 Oct 1813 for “expences at Lane End, Mr Smith, Mr Smalie and John Whalley with Mary Inskip” is more problematic as I could not find any Mary Inskip other than Mary Ridge who married Richard Inskip on 21 Sept 1802 in Dilhorne. The problem was that I had one too few Richards as the ones I had found were married to other wives who were still alive in 1813 and 1814.

Researching for a Richard Inskip born before 1785 (ie old enough to marry in 1802) brought up a man who was transported in 1833/34 and was worth considering.

Registers of convicts in the hulk ‘Cumberland’, moored at Chatham, with gaoler’s reports, 1830-1833

“Richard Inskip aged 56 for stealing a quantity of cord. Convicted 28 Feb 1833 at Stafford. Of Bad character disposition and ordours? An old offender (595, 597.)  Lifetime in Prison convicted of uttering base coins. V.D.L. [Van Dieman’s Land?] per Moffatt [A Ship] 26 Nov 1833. Born Lane End, Black Hair, Heavy Eyes, Black Lashes. Short oval visage. Can read and write. 5 foot 7½ inches tall. Married with children. Pitted with Small Pox, high cheek bones. Severely scarred on left side.  Wife lives by the side of Edward Onions & Wm Field? Under Mrs Batkins, Lane End, Staffordshire”

Registers of convicts in the hulk ‘Dolphin’, moored at Chatham, with gaoler’s reports, 1829-1835 Is similar to the above but adds that he is sentenced to 7 years and he has 7 children

New South Wales And Tasmania: Settlers And Convicts 1787-1859 Richard Inskip assd. To Dr. Desailly

https://www.digitalpanopticon says he was freed in 1840.

The Hobart Town Courier and Van Diemen’s Land Gazette 24 Jan 1840 THE GAZETTE. FRIDAY MORNING JANUARY 24, 1840. GOVERNMENT NOTICE, No. 11, Colonial Secretary’s Office, January 21. The period for which the under-mentioned persons were transported, expiring at the date placed after their respective names, certificates of their freedom may be obtained then, or at any subsequent period, upon application at the Muster Master’s Office, Hobart Town, or at that of a Police Magistrate in the interior: The list includes – Richard Inskip 28 Feb. [1840]

In 1812 /1813 Richard Inskip was accused of Felony. Lane End 27 May 1813. Richard Inskip was accused of stealing a horse. Reading the depositions of witnesses in Stafford Record Office (ref. Q/SB 1813 T/204-206) we learn that on the night of 4-5 June 1812 Thomas More of Penkhull and Robert Jones of Rhuabon lost a 4 year old Dark brown horse 15 hands high with white hind legs a blaze on the forehead and a brown muzzle.  No more was heard of the horse until the following August when acting on information they found him “working another team in Cresser” [possibly Creswell]. 

The horse was stolen around the time of Rugeley Fair in June 1812. Several people saw Richard Inskip with the horse in his stable in Forsbrook.  Richard Inskip associated with Wm. Roberts who told George Hurst he was William Smith. They were seen together at the Golden Lion at Lane End.[Now Longton]

27 May 1813 Richard Inskip’s evidence was that he left Rugeley about 4.0pm on 6th June with 4 men. He says he bought the horse for £14? 15s. He had left her with Copestick at Stallington and then fetched her and put her in his stable at Stone house, Forsbrook.

Joseph Copestick of Stallington says on 8th Richard Inskip brought a horse to him asking that it be laid in his land. Richard Inskip fetched the horse on the 28th and paid 20s for the said lay.

Joseph Gosling says that Robert Jones and Thomas More came and claimed the horse on his father’s farm and he took them to Richard Inskip of Forsbrook who had visited the horse in his father’s stable. Richard Inskip said it was his horse that he had bought on the 7th June when returning from Rugeley Fair. It was a stranger who sold it to him. It was suggested that they all go to the Wheat Sheaf at Stoke and send for the Farmer who was said to be present at the time. Richard Inskip ran away towards the place they got the horse from. The examinant ran after but could not catch him.

Hugh Davies, collier, says he was told by  Ann Smith of Hanley that Richard Jones of Hanley collier, advanced William Roberts thirty shillings upon a watch which was left in pawn to him, to be redeemed when Inskip and Roberts sold a horse. The watch was not redeemed

Joseph Heath a Blacksmith in Forsbrook said that Richard Inskip bought the brown horse at Rugeley Fair last June 1812 and Richard Inskip asked him [Joseph Heath] to cut 2-3 inches off the tail. He had not been cut before.

Ruth Neath says she has known Richard Inskip for near 2 years and has seen him with William Roberts who has stayed in his house.

Thomas Smith of Forsbrook said he had expected to meet Richard Inskip at Rugeley Fair on 5th June but did not see him. He saw him the next day and asked why he had not come and Richard Inskip gave some excuse he could not remember.

Case sent to the Assizes.

Staffordshire Summer Assizes 1821 Richard, Inskip for Uttering counterfeit money, at Cheddleton—6 Months and sureties for 12. (John Mare admitted evidence.)

The Quarter sessions case of 1813 and its connection to Lane End or as it became Longton and Forsbrook suggested a connection to the payment on 16 Oct 1813.

There was no baptism for a Richard Inskip in Dilhorne or Longton / Lane End but there was one in St. Peter Ad Vincula, Stoke on Trent on 27 Aug 1767 and he was the son of Edward and Mary Inskip. There was at least one older sister for Richard baptised at St. Peter’s and this was Hannah baptised 12 July 1761 the daughter of Edward and Jane Inscip of Lane End.

Edward was not such a common name in the Inskip family and his baptism was found back in Dilhorne on 12 Feb 1727 and he was the son of Thomas and Sarah Inskip who may have married in 1723 at St Alkmund’s, Derby, Derbyshire.  Thomas died 1737.

There is a problem with the Dilhorne Parish Records. Thomas must have been born before 1705 to have married in 1723 and there is something of a gap in the Parish Records. Browsing the Parish Register there are retrospective entries by either the new Vicar or Parish Clerk of items found after the previous Vicar had died.  Unfortunately Thomas Inskip is not included but there only appears to be one couple baptising children at the time so Thomas was probably the son of Richard Inskip, Blacksmith 1662-1708.

This gives a connection between the Inskips of Longton / Lane End and Dilhorne.  If Richard and Mary married in All Saints Dilhorne and baptised children there it suggests that they may have been living there for some time.

They appear to have had the following children

  1. George Ridge Inskip baptised 1803 in Stone, Staffordshire died 1815
  2. Ralph Inskip baptised 1805 in Dilhorne
  3. John Inskip born about 1808 in Dilhorne [name supplied by Inskip one name study]
  4. ??????
  5. James Inskip baptised 1815 in Longton
  6. Mary Inskip baptised 1816 in Longton
  7. George Inskip baptised 1818 in Longton
  8. Eliza Inskip baptised 1821 in Longton
  9. Joseph Inskip baptised 1825 in Longton.

The youngest child, Joseph, was baptised at the New Connextion Chapel, Longton which records “Joseph Inskip born 3 Nov 1825 and baptised 4 Dec 1825 the 9th child of Richard Inskip, Labourer of Lane End by Mary daughter of William Ridge, Potter of Lane End.”

The Dilhorne Overseers may have been supporting Richard’s wife Mary and his children until they managed to get them back to Longton.

The 1841 Census HO107/991 folio 6 shows Mary Inskip aged 60 living in Willow Street, Longton with her son Joseph aged 15 a collier and her son George appears to be married and living a few doors away.

Staffordshirebmd.org.uk has a death entry for Mary Inskip aged 75 registered in Burslem. No death certificate has been bought but Mary’s son John is living in Haywood Pl, Burslem in 1851 working as a Potters Fireman.

No death has been found for Richard Inskip but he was still alive in 1845 when the Hobart Town Courier and Van Diemen’s Land Gazette reported on Sat 1 Feb 1845 “Case against Richard Inskip was dismissed. Inskip had challenged Turner to fight, and got the worst of it”

 

Ann Barnard (1805-1882), Gnossall

The collection of Poor Law Vouchers for the Parish of Gnosall in Stafford Record Office contain several bills from Stafford Lunatic Asylum. Two have notes added to them concerning Ann Barnard.

(D951/5/81/56) Bill from Stafford Lunatic Asylum 26 Dec 1821

Gentm. It is very much the wish of the Physician to this Institution to give A Barnards a trial out & we recommend that she should in the first instance be taken care of in the Workhouse. She will be given up any time after next Saturday. J.G. [John Garrett]

The next has a more curt note. ( D951/5/81/57) Bill from Stafford Lunatic Asylum 26 March 1822

Gentm. I am directed to request that you will remove Ann Barnard for the sake of giving her trial at home as it appears to us she may now be removed on trial with safety and probable advantage – I am further directed to call your attention to the [heavy?] amount of the arrears & to require that you will order their payment. I am Gntm. Your Obed. ———  John Garratt

NB A quarter’s maintenance was £4 17s 6d. However this probably was not paid as a further Bill appears (D951/5/81/63) dated Nov 1822 from Stafford Lunatic Asylum for £81 13s 1d (16 Nov £71 13s 1d and 23 Nov £10.)

Not all records for Stafford Lunatic Asylum have survived but fortunately a book for 1821-22 has and it contains a page transcribed below but is difficult to read as it has poor writing and several abbreviations which are in red and any suggestions as to what the abbreviations are would be welcomed and an extract is shown below. Ann obviously has Post Natal Depression.

D4585/6 Stafford Lunatic Asylum 1821-22

Feb 12. Ann Barnard

This is a pauper from Gnosall, who became deranged about a fortnight since, having been delivered of an illegitimate child three weeks before. She seemed disposed at first to destroy the infant and on Tuesday attempted suicide by making a slight incision under the chin with a shoemakers wife knife (sic) Her mother was insane for 3 months after childbirth. Takes food irregularly, is thirsty and confined in her bowels. Is very violent and obliged to be put under restraint. H Cath all? Auror? 21 Has been freely [purged?] and is more calm, says her own [wickedness?] has [induced?] her present malady. Her disease now appears the Melancholic form Can—- an– Cith[????] 29 Is still obliged to be kept under restraint owing to a propensity to commit suicide. Cant? March 15th [– Digit gn x1d -ugend dos?] 12 Is generally improving [Cant Uain Cith?] 27 Cost.[Costive?]

1 May a little better. 22 June the disease has [now expanded?] the violent form. [Uanst Cilt al—-?]

30 Oct Continues in the subacute form of disease expresses extreme anxiety to return to her friends. 18 Nov Has employed herself more than usual lately but expresses the same anxiety to return home. Discharged on trial Dec 2 1820 re-admitted Dec 7th Continued quiet for about 2 days and then became violent, undressing herself. Said the room was in flames etc. 14 Ʀ [sign for prescription?] Digitales gn x1[orN?]d. The [S?]iving to be used. Discharged on Trial April 3rd 1822 Readmitted April 13th 1822. Has attempted suicide by throwing herself into a well.

July 9 Continues in much the same state, is constantly requesting to be allowed to return home. Oct 14 no alteration.

Jan 13 1823 Has become emaciated from her anxiety to go home a trial recommended. Feb 22 discharged on trial.

Bearing in mind that Ann Barnard was admitted on Feb 12 the Gnosall PR was searched and the Baptism found in St. Lawrence, Gnosall 10 Jan 1820 for Richard son of Ann Barnard single woman.

A further search for an unmarried Ann Barnard of child bearing age brings up a probable baptism on 29 Dec 1805 at Gnosall and she was the daughter of Susannah Barnard. (no Father.)

Ann Barnard does not appear on the 1841 Census, nor is there any record of a burial in either Stafford or Gnosall between 1823 and 1841 but there is a probable marriage for Ann Barnard (signed X) in St. Lawrence, Gnosall on 27 Dec 1827 to William Richards. Witnesses Charlotte Halls X and Joseph Badger. (Gnosall, St. Lawrence PR have the burial on 21 June 1839 of Joseph Badger age 42 which indicate that he was the Parish Clerk)

Ann & William Richards can be found in the 1841i and the 1851ii Census across the county border in Shropshire, but are back in Gnosall in 1861iii and1871. Having started as an Ag. Lab William then becomes a Blacksmith before acquiring a small farm of 19 acres by 1881.

William and Ann Richards have 7 children listed in the Census

Thomas born 1831 in Shropshire

John born 1834 in Shropshire

William born 1837 in Shropshire

Mary born 1839 in Shropshire

George born 1839 in Shropshire

John born 1842 in Shropshire

Mary Ann born 1844 in Shropshire

It was a pleasure to find that Ann survived to a ripe old age – hopefully without a re-occurance of Post Natal Depression. Her burial is seen in St. Mary’s Moreton. 6 July 1882 Ann Richards of Moreton. Age 77. Her husband lived a little longer and a burial is seen in St. Mary’s Moreton. 7 Jan 1887 William Richards of Moreton age 83.   Moreton is part of Gnosall Parish.

In none of the census records has Ann’s son Richard Barnard been found. He did not die before 1830 as Staffordshire Apprentice Records have a record dated 15 May 1830 iv in which Richard Barnard Age 10 years, son of Ann of the parish of Gnosall is apprenticed to Joseph Bekcher a Farmer otp. Until 21 yrs [Probably Joseph Belcher]

After this there is no trace of Richard. He is not found on the 1841 census but no burial has been found. He could possibly have gone to America as one Richard Barnard is found travelling to America from Ireland. Or he could have gone into the Army as another is found in the Military Records and Greenwich Pensioners on Find My Past

Notes

i  1841 Census HO107/904 folio 22. Uckington, Atcham, Shropshire

ii1851 Census HO107/1987/folio 356 Burlington, Shiffnal, Shifnal, Shropshire,

iii1861 Census RG9/1904 folio 37 Lower Road, Gnosall, Newport, Staffordshire

iv      D951/5/94

Sources

Staffordshire Record Office

D951/5/81/56, Gnossall Overseers Voucher, Stafford Lunatic Asylum, 26 Dec 1821

D951/5/81/57, Gnossall Overseers Voucher, Stafford Lunatic Asylum, 26 March 1822

D951/5/81/63, Gnossall Overseers Voucher, Stafford Lunatic Asylum, Nov 1822

D4585/6, Stafford Lunatic Asylum, 1821-22

Young Parton’s Thigh

D10/A/PO/25, Colton Parish Overseers’ Voucher, 19 February 1756.

A brief and partially faded voucher has turned up amongst those for Colton. It reads ‘19 Febry 1756 To reducing Young Partons Thigh 11s 6. Jany 21 1757 Rd of Mr Clark the contents above in full Gilbt Hordeane’.

This produced much speculation amongst the volunteers. Had Clark given Hordeane the reduced bit of Parton’s thigh? What had caused Parton to require the reduction of his thigh? What exactly is thigh reduction?

Currently, thigh reduction treatment involves surgery. The  removal of fat and skin from the thigh area is designed to recapture a more youthful figure; but surely this was not practiced in the mid-eighteenth century? Of course it was not. As usual volunteers on the project were able to provide the answer: ‘Thigh reduction’ refers to setting a fracture. It may refer to a displaced fracture where the two ends of the bone are out of alignment. Reduction and manipulation involves the stretching of the bone to pull them back into alignment.