Sandon, Staffordshire Bastardy Records

Sandon Poor Law Documents Reference D22/A/PO/1-2 in Stafford Record Office.

These may be the only references to the Fathers of the children as no Father is recorded in the All Saints, Sandon Parish Records.  (B.B. is probably abbreviation for Base Born)

Item 65. The examination dated 6 July 1811, of Sarah Browning of the parish of Sandon, singlewoman.  On the 16 June 1811 she was delivered of a male bastard child who is likely to become chargeable to the parish.  John Wright farming Bailiff did get her with child.  All Saints, Sandon: Baptism 16 June 1811, Samson Browning B.B. son of Sarah Browning.

Item 66. Examination of Margaret Hind of Sandon dated 4 Jan 1823.  Margaret Hind was delivered of a male bastard child who is likely to become chargeable to the parish. Richard Tomlinson of Sandon, serving man did get her with child. All Saints, Sandon: No baptism has been found for a child to Margaret Hind/Hine or Tomlinson however there is a burial of an infant William Hine on 9 Aug 1828.

Item 67. Examination of Ann Worsey of Sandon, dated 7 June 1823. She was delivered of a male bastard child on 3 May 1823 who is likely to become chargeable to the parish. George Simms late of Salt Labourer did get her with child. All Saints, Sandon: Baptism of William B.B. son of Anne Worsey of Sandon, Servant.

Item 68. Examination of Sarah Trundley of Sandon, widow, dated 21 June 1823. On 23 May 1823 she was delivered of a male bastard child at Gilpel in the Parish of Sandon who is likely to become chargeable to the Parish.  Samuel Tagg of Tillington in said county, Serving man, did get her with child. All Saints, Sandon: No Male baptism found but there is a baptism on 8 June 1823 for Marcia B.B. daughter of Sarah Trundley of Hardywick, Serving woman.

Item 69 Examination of Mary Hall (at Stafford?) 2 Feb 1724/5 She was delivered of a male bastard child within the parish of Sandon.  William Astbury doth acknowledge himself to be the Father.  William Astbury agrees to pay six pence every week that the child is with her. All Saints, Sandon: Baptism on 21 Feb 1724/5 of Johannes son of Maria Hall.

Item 70 Bond of Indemnity.

Ann Hassall deceased was delivered of a male bastard child named Charles in Sandon Parish on 5 May 1748 which is Chargeable to the Parish of Sandon. Charles Hassall of Caverswall Parish yeoman, agreed in Consideration of the sum of £6 6s 0d to save the parish harmless of charges for 12 years.  All Saints, Sandon: Baptism 15 May 1748 Charles Hassall s/o Ann Hassall and John Askey.

Ann does not appear to be buried in Sandon but there is a burial for Hannah d/o Charles Hassall in Caverswall on 26 Mar 1750

Jonathan Leese/Lees and his yo-yo family.

Jonathan Leese and his family are the subject of at least 2 removal orders during his life which are found in the Poor Law Vouchers in Stafford Record Office for Sandon, Staffordshire.

D22/A/PO/1-2 item 43

Removal order for Jonathan Leese (Lees) wife Ann and 5 children (William 10, Mary 8, Sarah 5, Jonathan 3 and Hannah 18 months) From Stoke on Trent to Sandon. Dated 10 Jan 1810

D22/A/PO/1-2item 51

Removal Order for Jonathan Leese/ Lees wife Ann and children (Jonathan 8, Hannah 6, Mariah 4, and Ann 2) From Stoke on Trent to Sandon. Dated 5 June 1817.

The name is spelt variously as Leese or Lees even on the same document

Jonathan Leese (Senior) of Sandon married Mary Parker in St. Michael’s, Stone on 20 Jan 1761 and they had 2 children baptised in All Saints, Sandon

1. Ann 18 July 1762 where the place of residence is given as Hardywicke Heath

1. 13 Sept 1778 Jonathan

2. 13 Aug 1780 Hannah

Jonathan Leese (junior) married Anne Hazlehurst in St. Michael’s, Stone on 8 May 1797 (both signed X)

They then had either 10 or 11 Children. It is not clear if they had 1 or 2 Hannahs as the removal orders indicate one born circa 1808 and the second born circa 1811. Only a baptism for the 1808 Hannah is found but as the second one appears to date from around the time of the first removal order it could have been that she was not baptised.


1. William Bapt. Stone St. Michael’s 29 May 1798 born 27th Mar s/o Jonathan and Anne Leese of Sandon.

2. Mary Bapt. Stone St. Michael’s 16 Nov 1800. born 12 Nov. d/o Jonathan and Anne Leese of Stone.

3. Richard Bapt. Sandon, All Saints 14 Mar 1803 s/o Jonathan and Hannah Leese. (This cannot have been Jonathan senior as his wife is buried in 1817 aged 80 making her DOB as 1737)

4. Sarah Bapt Stoke St. Peter’s 18 Mar 1804 d/o Jonathan and Anne Lees of Shelton

5. Jonathan Bapt Stoke St. Peter’s 16 Nov 1806 born 3 Oct. s/o Jonathan and Anne Lees of Black —-.

6. Hannah Bapt Stoke St. Peter’s 27 Nov 1808 born 6 Nov d/o Jonathan and Anne Lees of Black Lion. (Possibly buried as Ann Lees in Stoke 29 May 1810.)

7 Hannah dob abt 1811 NOT FOUND

8. Maria Bapt Stoke St. Peter’s 19 July 1812 d/o Jonathan and Ann Lees

9. Ann Bapt Stoke St. Peter’s 15 Apr 1815 d/o Jonathan and Ann Leese of High Croft

10.Jonathan Bapt Sandon, All Saints, 17 Aug 1817 s/o Jonathan and Ann Leese of Sandon, Labourer.

11. Harriot Bapt Stone St. Michael’s 14 Dec 1817 d/o Jonathan and Anne Lees of Stone, Labourer

After repeated attempts it looks as if the family finally made it out of Sandon as the last child is baptised in Stone and Jonathan and Ann are still there in 1841 and 1851.

1841 Census HO107/2000 folio 96

Address – Church Street, Stone, Staffordshire

Jonathan Lees aged 60 occupation Ag. Lab born Staffordshire

Ann Lees aged 60 born Staffordshire

Henry Lees aged 4 born Staffordshire

In the 1851 Census Henry is stated to be a grandson and Henry was baptised in St. Michael’s, Stone the son of Jane Leese Spinster but I cannot find a baptism for a Jane Lees / Leese to Jonathan and Ann. However in the 1841 Census there is a William Leese born 1797-1801 and a Jane Leese also born 1797 -1801 living with the family of Benjamin Till in Weaver Street, Stoke upon Trent, Staffordshire. So Henry could be the son of Jonathan’s son William.

1851 Census HO107/2000 folio 96

Address – Church Street, Stone, Staffordshire

Jonathan Leese Head age 73 occupation Pauper Labourer born Sandon, Staffordshire

Ann Leese wife 73 born Stone, Staffordshire

James Lydall lodger unmarried age 71 Pensioner E I C Service born Leicestershire

Henry Leese Grandson age 13 Pauper Child born Stone, Staffordshire

Mary Rowley Granddaughter age 9 Pauper Child born Stone, Staffordshire

Ann Leese was buried at St. Michael, Stone 3 Sept 1855. age 76 (dob 1779)

Jonathan Leese was buried at St. Michael, Stone 6 Jan 1857 age 79 (dob 1778)

The pre-history of the zero-hours contract

Vouchers for the parish of Sandon contain a quantity of settlement examinations, the potted biographies of ordinary working people that chart their employment and rate-paying past. The examination of Jesse Harris taken on 24 August 1813 (exactly 205 years to the day before this blog post) offers a curious side-light on the working life of ostlers.  Harris had been born in Cheadle, Staffordshire and was not apprenticed to any trade. Instead he made a living as a pot-boy and later as a  ‘hostler’.  In the latter capacity he took care of the horses belonging to the customers of an inn or coaching house, perhaps by feeding and rubbing them down, or seeing that they were accommodated in stabling suitable to their owner’s status.  But the life and particularly the income of an ostler was a precarious one.  Harris’s settlement examination refers to ‘the usual manner of hiring Hostlers, Viz to have board and lodging, no wages but such perquisites as the customers pleased to give him’.  At the same time he had no fixed term of employment.  Jesse Harris must have been reasonably adept at his job, however, as he held down the post of ostler at the White Hart in St Albans Hertfordshire for nearly six years before traveling back to Staffordshire.

Richard Bills (1777–1849), Ironmaster, Darlaston, Part Two

Richard Bills’ will (proved 1849) shows him to have been a substantial business and property owner in Darlaston. In the Jackson’s Fold area were three houses with shops and outbuildings ‘now or late in the occupation of my brother Samuel Bills and Joseph Paulton and [blank] Page. Also the dwelling house, shop and appurtenances situate at Butt Cross, Darlaston, and now or late occupied by Thomas Cooper, and land in Kingshill Field now in my own possession’. These were to be given, upon trust, to Samuel Messon[?] gent and John Foster Adams both of Darlaston, who were instructed ‘as soon as convenient after my death [to] sell and dispose of the same by public auction or private contract’.

Richard’s wife, Elizabeth, was given his ‘moiety and other share estate and interests of and in all those erections and buildings knowns as Darlaston Gun Ironworks and Steelworks’. This included messuages, mills, forges, shops, warehouses, counting houses and all steam engines, machinery, implements, utensils, chattels and moveable effects. Elizabeth was also to receive his stock-in-trade, debts and effects which ‘shall then belong and be due and owing to the co-partnership carried on between me and my son-in-law Samuel Mills [and] all the mines minerals and collieries with the engines, gins, machinery and apparatus belonging thereto …’ She was also bequeathed ‘all the residue and remainder of my messuages, buildings, lands and other Real Estate … To have and to hold, receive, take and enjoy … absolutely’.

Richard bequeathed all his ‘household goods and furniture, plate, bedding, linen, china, and other household effects and his money, securities for money, and other personal estate ‘unto my wife absolutely’.

From sum of £500 bequeathed to his trustees, one fourth was given to his sisters Ann Bill (wife of Samuel Bill); one other fourth to Sarah Bill (wife of William Bill) and one fourth to ‘such of my nephews and nieces the children of my late sister Elizabeth Cartwright as shall be living at the time of my death in equal shares’. The remaining fourth was to be placed in trust and invested in ‘freehold, leasehold, personal or any other security or securities as my said trustees or trustee shall think proper in their or his names or name and to pay the interests and dividends thereof unto my said brother Samuel Bills during his life’. But, Richard stipulated ‘if the same shall not amount to ten shillings per week then upon trust from time to time to make up and pay that sum out of the principal money’. If Samuel Bills’ wife outlived her husband she was to receive 5s a week. After their deaths the money was to be placed ‘in trust for my nephews and nieces the children of my said brother’.

At the end of his lengthy will Richard nominated and appointed his wife sole executrix. There then followed three pages of codicils.

‘I Richard Bills Ironmaster do declare this to be a codicil to be annexed and taken as part of my last will and testament bearing date11 September 1839. Whereas I did by my will give, devise and bequeath unto my wife Elizabeth all that my moiety and other share estate and interest of … the Darlaston Green Iron works and Steel works situate in the parish of Darlaston … Now, in case it shall happen that my said wife shall die in my lifetime I give devise and bequeath unto my said son-in-law Samuel Mills all my said moiety and other share estate and interest of and in the said iron works, steel works … and premises and also my said residuary messuages, buildings, lands and real estate’.

In the event of Elizabeth predeceasing Richard, Samuel Mills was also to receive all Richard’s household goods, personal estate, money and securities for money that he had bequeathed to Elizabeth.

Since making his will, Richard’s sister Sarah (the wife of William Bill) had died. Her share of the £500 was now to be divided equally amongst her children.

The codicil was dated13 January 1844


Staffordshire Record Office, BC/11, Will of Richard Bills, Ironmaster, Darlaston, 1849

This is a work in progress, subject to change as new research is conducted.

Richard Bills, 1777–1849, Darlaston, part one

The overseers’ vouchers for Darlaston contain a number from Richard Bills for flour, household items, provisions and grocery goods including sugar, tobacco, pepper, tallow soap, oatmeal, treacle, yarn, a brush, and candles. From such goods it might be expected that Bills was a grocer and provision dealer, but there is also a voucher for 500 bricks, others for ‘interest paid to the lodge’ and one that includes ‘26 weeks pay for Mrs Dixon at 2s 6d’. Given the variety of receipts, questions arise as to who Richard Bills was and what business or businesses he traded in, particularly as his will of 1849 describes him as an ironmaster.

For what follows it is helpful to have a simplified family tree of the Bills family. The family relationships are derived from the wills of Richard Bills the elder (proved 1819) and Richard Bills the younger (proved 1849). The situation is complicated by the fact that two of the daughters of Richard Bills the elder (Ann and Sarah) married men with the surname of Bill. Not all dates for family members have been traced; others need to be double-checked.

Richard Bills (d.1818) = Mary

They had Richard (1777-1849) who married Elizabeth Mills; Samuel; Ann (who married Samuel Bill), Sarah (who married William Bill of Brownhills); and Elizabeth who married Abel Cartwright. Elizabeth and Abel Cartwright had four children: Francis, Richard, George and John.

Richard’s (d.1849)  wife,  Elizabeth, was the widow of Thomas Mills, by whom she had had a son, Samuel (d.1864). Richard became Samuel’s step-father, although some documents refer to Samuel Mills as Richard Bill’s ‘son in law’.

After the just debts funeral charges and expenses had been paid, the will of Richard the elder stipulated that his real estate and ‘the use wear and enjoyment of all my stockhold goods, money, securities for money, personal estate and effects’ should go to his wife Mary, and after her death to ‘my son in law Samuel Bill and Thomas Harper of Darlaston gunlock filer’ upon trust. They were instructed to sell and dispose of his real estate and premises either by public auction or private contracts as they thought proper.

One third of the money raised was to be given to ‘my said son in law Samuel Bill and Ann his wife to and for their own use and benefit’.  One other third to ‘my son in law William Bill of Brown Hills, Staffordshire, and Sarah his wife to and for their own use and benefit and to my son in law Abel Cartwright of Darlaston, hinge-maker, the sum of £50 to and for his own use and benefit’. The residue and remainder of the money was to be put and placed ‘at interest on freehold or government security or securities’ and the interest paid to ‘my daughter Elizabeth Cartwright for and during the term of her natural life for her own sole separate use and benefit and not to be subject to or liable to the debts control or engagements of the present or future husband or husbands’. If Elizabeth died before her father, then her share of his estate was to pass to her children.

There is no mention in the will of Richard the younger.

Richard the elder nominated and appointed his wife Mary, Samuel Bill and William Bill as executors. There then follows a number of codicils. By the time of Richard’s death both his wife Mary and his daughter Elizabeth Cartwright had died. Consequently, all real and personal estate left to his wife was now bequeathed unto his son in law Samuel Bill and Thomas Harper upon trust. The £50 previously bequeathed to Abel was revoked (clearly Richard thought little of Abel), and the portion left to Elizabeth was now bequeathed to her children Francis, Richard, George and John equally to ‘share and share alike when and as they shall severally and respectively attain the age of twenty one years’.


Staffordshire Record Office

SRO, D1149/6/2/1/1/3, Darlaston Overseers’ vouchers, 6 April 1816

SRO, D1149/6/2/1/1/19, Darlaston Overseers’ vouchers, 4 May 1816

SRO, D1149/6/2/3/295, Darlaston Overseers’ vouchers, 2 December 1817

SRO, D1149/6/2/3/280, Darlaston Overseers’ vouchers, 11 December 1817

SRO, Darlaston Overseers’ vouchers, D1149/6/2/3/228, 13 January 1818

SRO, D1149/6/2/3/330, Darlaston Overseers’ vouchers, 18 February 1818

SRO, D1149/6/2/3/157, Darlaston Overseers’ vouchers, 4 September 1818

SRO, D1149/6/2/3/85, Darlaston Overseers’ vouchers, 12 December 1818

SRO, D1149/6/2/4/57, Darlaston Overseers’ vouchers, 19 May 1819

SRO, D1149/6/2/1/6/32, Darlaston Overseers’ vouchers, n.d.

SRO, D1149/6/2/7/5/39, Darlaston Overseers’ vouchers, 21 November 1822

SRO, D1149/6/2/7/5/22, Darlaston Overseers’ vouchers, 25 November 1822

SRO, BC/11, Will of Richard Bills, gun lock maker, Darlaston, 1819

SRO, BC/11, Will of Richard Bills, Ironmaster, Darlaston, 1849

This is a work in progress, subject to change as new research is conducted.











Betley in 1834

Abridged from White’s Directory of Staffordshire.

Betley is one of the smallest and pleasantest market towns in the county, consisting of one wide street, on the Nantwich Road, 7½ miles, west north west of Newcastle-under-Lyme, near the confines of Cheshire; the boundary line between the two counties extending here through the middle of a fine lake of 80 acres, called Betley Mere, abounding in pike, perch and other fish. The appearance of the houses is uncommonly neat, and the town is greatly ornamented by two very handsome seats, Beltey Hall and Betley Court, the former of which is the residence and property of George Tollet esq and the latter of Miss Fletcher.

The parish contains about 1200 acres of land and 870 inhabitants. Mr Tollet is lord of the manor and the other principal proprietors are Sir T. F. F. Boughey, who has a large estate here, and the Earl of Wilton, who owns Betley Mere.

The market on a Friday has long been of such trivial consequence, that it may be said to be obsolete, but a large cattle fair is held here on July 31, and another is about to be established, to be held yearly in May. The parish wake is on the first Sunday after October 6.

The church, though inferior to many in the neighbourhood, deserves notice, as affording the earliest attempt at Gothic architecture in this kingdom.

The Methodists have a small chapel in town; and the parishioners have the benefit of an endowed school.

A yearly rent charge of £4 4s for apprenticing poor children of Betley is paid out of land called Rushy Heys, being purchased for that purpose with £75, left in 1674 by William Palmer. The poor parishioners have the following yearly doles, viz 10s as the interest of £10 left by Joseph Cope in 1692; 40s for bread, 30s for clothing, and 40s for schooling, left by Marmaduke Jolly; 10s for bread left by Richard Gorton; and 4s for bread left by William Abnet.

The school was rebuilt partly by subscription, in 1826, and has four acres of land. It is now conducted on Dr Bell’s system, and in it is kept a parochial library of 200 volumes.

Here is also opened, once a month, a branch of the Pirehill Savings Bank, which has its principal establishment at Stone.


William White, History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire (Sheffield: 1834), 616–17

Yoxall in 1834

Abridged from Whites, Directory of Staffordshire.

A large and well-built village in a pleasant valley near the south western border of the enclosed forest of Needwood, seven miles north-north east of Lichfield upon the Ashbourne Road. It was anciently a market town. The parish includes several hamlets and scattered houses and contains 1582 inhabitants and 4791 acres. The church is an ancient Gothic fabric dedicated to St Peter.

Two cattle fairs are held each year on 12 February and 19 October and a feast or wake on the first Sunday in July.

The hamlets in Yoxall parish are Hoar Cross, Longcroft, Hadley End, Morry, Olive Green and Woodhouses. Hoar Cross Hall, now the seat of H. C. Meynell esq, was anciently the residence of the Willes family and was rebuilt by its late possessor Lord Scarsdale and used as a hunting lodge. Longcroft Hall is the seat of Mrs Arden. At Morry is a large tape mill established about 40 years ago. It produces15 cwt of tape each week. Yoxall Lodge has long been the residence of the Rev Thomas Gisborne.

The parish possesses many valuable benefactions including:

The Town Lands consisting of about 24 acres, let for upwards of £50 a year have been held in trust for the benefit of the parish for more than two centuries. In a copy of the court rolls for this manor, the rents are declared to be for the repairs of Trent Bridge, Hall Bridge and the Church of Yoxall and for the funding of an armed man for the service of the king, or for any other necessary uses for the village of Yoxall as should seem expedient to the ‘major part of the better sort of inhabitants’. But 20s a year is paid out of the rents as the interest of legacies left to the poor by three persons named Robotham, Bell and Sutton.

The Church Lands comprise ten acres, let for £17 7s a year, which is applied by the churchwardens in aid of the church rate.

The Free School was rebuilt by subscription, about 1818, and founded in 1695 by Thomas Taylor. Here is also a Girls’ National School, built in 1817, by subscription.

In 1690 Richard Crosse bequeathed 22 acres calle Bigg Car, for the maintenance of six widows of deceased parishioners.


William White, History, Gazetteer and Directory of Staffordshire (Sheffield: 1834), 470–72.

Plans for a New Workhouse at Uttoxeter 1838

Following the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834, many new workhouses were constructed by the guardians of the poor in parishes across the country. The Uttoxeter Union placed notices in local newspapers inviting interested parties to submit plans. The following notice appeared in the Derby Mercury on 14 March 1838.

Uttoxeter Union

Workhouse Plans

‘The Board of Guardians of this Union hereby give Notice, that they are prepared to receive Plans for the above Building. It is required that each Architect should send in two Plans – one for altering and enlarging the present Workhouse, situate at Uttoxeter; and another Plan for an entirely new one, each to contain accommodation for 200 Paupers, with separate estimates of the expense of each; and also an estimate of the value of the present Workhouse as old materials to be converted to the use of a new building. The Architect whose Plan is adopted by the Board will be employed to superintend the erection. The Plans are to be sent in (free of expense) addressed to ‘The Clerk of the Uttoxeter Union’ on or before the 20th day of March next. Dated at Uttoxeter, the 22d day of February, 1838.’

Example Staffordshire Post

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Quisque nec augue quis augue rhoncus blandit sed nec nibh. Proin eleifend, metus at congue lobortis, libero nulla pharetra lacus, at mattis sem diam eu ex. Sed est eros, vehicula at dictum placerat, maximus sit amet velit. Vestibulum finibus dapibus justo quis bibendum. Nunc convallis nulla ac libero rutrum maximus. Vestibulum lorem elit, pulvinar quis consectetur quis, hendrerit in neque. Suspendisse potenti. Curabitur iaculis ut erat sed egestas. Orci varius natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Maecenas sollicitudin enim metus, nec iaculis arcu ultrices in.

Donec aliquet vel dui et interdum. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Donec sagittis ante ut nulla laoreet, at pellentesque erat bibendum. Aenean at eros sit amet erat condimentum accumsan. Donec varius fermentum eros, ac congue mi condimentum in. Nullam dui nibh, sodales non lorem ac, fringilla convallis nisi. Praesent et turpis quam. Aenean metus ligula, gravida sed vestibulum quis, fringilla non quam. Mauris interdum lacinia elit, sed pellentesque ligula dapibus a. Ut nec lectus magna. Pellentesque consequat varius molestie.

Nullam arcu urna, scelerisque a massa vitae, dignissim egestas elit. Fusce nec libero eget sapien ultrices fermentum non et quam. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra, per inceptos himenaeos. Phasellus pharetra est eu elit vulputate condimentum. Ut laoreet interdum sem, egestas imperdiet neque porta sit amet. Duis consectetur consequat elit, sed ultrices sapien elementum quis. Nunc ligula nunc, scelerisque vel lacus non, ultricies luctus sapien. Aliquam efficitur augue sem, vel suscipit nisi dignissim vel. Sed mi arcu, interdum in lobortis sed, maximus vel justo. Donec magna erat, varius eget venenatis sit amet, dapibus et erat. Pellentesque efficitur quam in orci auctor egestas. Suspendisse bibendum, massa quis scelerisque iaculis, urna ex semper risus, eu efficitur dolor leo vitae magna.

Sed sed molestie eros. Nam tincidunt mollis nulla ac malesuada. Vestibulum eu elementum leo, eu molestie justo. Pellentesque tempus sagittis odio, in malesuada lacus suscipit non. Curabitur interdum id ligula et volutpat. Nam non mattis mi. Nullam in quam id quam molestie auctor non ac mi. Interdum et malesuada fames ac ante ipsum primis in faucibus. Curabitur semper diam sed dui viverra, et volutpat turpis vulputate. Quisque quis justo et nisi ornare convallis. Pellentesque ut libero lacus. Fusce efficitur a nunc at vehicula. Vestibulum sed metus auctor, varius sem at, pulvinar metus. Nulla pharetra sodales molestie. Integer aliquam metus vitae justo pellentesque, sed viverra nibh consectetur.

Duis nec bibendum velit. Sed eget semper odio. Fusce aliquet tortor sem, id maximus tortor scelerisque sed. Fusce convallis hendrerit turpis, vel vestibulum arcu dictum id. Donec sed feugiat orci. Aenean viverra, magna in pulvinar iaculis, massa ligula sodales risus, in posuere arcu lectus ut ipsum. In imperdiet quam sit amet nibh imperdiet pretium. Donec rhoncus tristique pulvinar.